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A receiving tub for wort drained from the mash.
The addition of water to a mash-in-progress from below so the grains float a bit. Encourages quicker and more thorough mixing.
Undermodified malt has fewer free amino acids and many complex proteins. This type of malt requires an additional step in the mashing process to break down the proteins in the grain. Undermodified malt also has the potential to cause a protein chill haze in the finished beer. Virtually no modern malts are undermodified.