Brewing Glossary
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cabbage-like flavor
Aroma and flavor due to long lag times and wort spoilage bacteria that arise from contamination. Also known as cooked vegetable-like flavor.
 
campden tablets
Pellets of sodium metabisulphite used as infection-inhibiting agent. Not technically a sterilizer. Used more in wine, mead, and cider making than brewing.
 
carmelization
The heat-induced browning of sugars, different from the Maillard reactions in malt kilning.
 
Cara-Pils
Tradename for a specially processed malt used to add body to pale beers. Similar to crystal but not roasted. Also called dextrine malt.
 
carbohydrates
Complex organic compounds that form the majority of the barley malt. Carbohydrates include insoluble cellulose, soluble hemicellulose, starch and sugars.
 
carbonates
Alkaline salts whose anions are derived from carbonic acid.
 
carbonation
The process of injecting or dissolving carbon dioxide gas in a liquid to create an effervescence of pleasant taste and texture. In beermaking, one of three methods is used:
  1. injecting the finished beer with the carbon dioxide collected for this purpose during the primary fermentation.
  2. kraeusening, or adding young fermenting beer to finished beer to induce a renewed fermentation.
  3. priming (adding sugar) to fermented beer prior to bottling or to each bottle prior to capping to create a secondary fermentation within the bottle. Sealed in the bottle or container it creates carbon dioxide gas which, being trapped, dissolves in the beer.
carbon dioxide
One of the two main end products in fermentation of beer by yeast. The source of the effervescence in beer. Also writen as CO2. See carbonation above.
 
carboy
A large, narrow-necked glass, plastic or earthenware bottle used to ferment beer or wine. Available in 2, 5, 6.5, and 7-gallon sizes.
 
carrageen
Another name for Irish moss.
 
cation
Electro-positive ion.
 
cellulose
An insoluble carbohydrate found in the husk of barley.
 
celsius
European thermometer scale, formerly called centigrade. Abbreviated °C.
To convert °Celsius to °Fahrenheit: °F=(°C x 9/5) + 32
To convert °Fahrenheit to °Celsius: °C=(°F - 32) x 5/9
 
cereal
Broad term for a group of grass plant species cultivated as food grains, where as barley is one.
 
chill haze
Haze caused by precipitation of protein-tannin compounds at cold temperatures. Does not affect flavor. Reduce proteins or tannins in brewing.
 
chill-proof
Cold fermentation to precipitate chill-haze.
 
chit malt
A type of malt sometimes used in Europe, which is malted for a very short time, and thus highly undermodified.
 
chlorophenolic flavor
Caused by chemical combination of chlorine and organics. Detectable in parts per billion. Aroma is unique but similar to plastic-like phenolic. Avoid using chlorinated water.
 
chocolate (malt)
Medium-brown roasted malt.
 
closed fermentation
Fermentation under anaerobic conditions, to minimize risk of contamination and oxidation.
 
cold break
Rapid precipitation of proteins, which occurs when boiled wort is rapidly chilled.
 
coliform
Water-borne bacteria, often associated with pollution.
 
colloid
A gelatinous substance-in-solution. Beer is considered a colloid, as is gelatin. Many reactions in beer involve the colloidal state, especially those affecting haze and head stability.
 
conditioning
The process of maturation of beer, whether in bottles or in kegs. During this phase, complex sugars are slowly fermented, carbon dioxide is dissolved, and yeast settles out.
 
cone
The part of the hop plant used in brewing, consisting of the flowers.
 
conversion
The enzymatic transformation of starches into various fermentable and unfermentable sugars that occurs during the mashing process.
 
cooked vegetable-like flavor
Aroma and flavor due to long lag times and wort spoilage bacteria that arise from contamination. Also known as cabbage-like flavor.
 
copper
The brewing kettle, named for its traditional material of construction.
 
cornelius keg
Kegs commonly used in homebrewing. Stainless steel canisters once used for soft drinks. They can be found in 3, 5, and 10 gallon sizes with two types of connector, pin-lock or ball-lock.
 
corn sugar
Also called dextrose or glucose. A simple sugar sometimes used in beer making, derived from corn.
 
couch
A heap of steeped barley that is cast on the malting floor for germination.
 
crown cap
A metal cap with a cork or plastic lining and a crown-shaped contour (skirt) which is crimped around the mouth of a bottle to form an airtight seal that retains carbon dioxide gas.
 
crush
A procedure used to break grain in to small pieces while maintaining the integrity of the barley husk.
 
crystal malt
A specially processed type of malt that is used to add body and caramel color and flavor to amber and dark beers. Comes in several shades of color (10 - 220° Lovibond)
 
CWT
Abbreviation for hundredweight. An English unit of weight equal to 112 pounds.
 


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