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Homebrew Bittering Unit. Measure of amount of hop bitterness added to beer. Alpha acids x ounces / gallons.
A common measurement of water mineral levels in the water supply, expressed as parts-per-million. Temporary hardness is determined by the concentration of carbonate and bicarbonate. The hardness that carbonate and bicarbonate ions contribute is temporary because carbonate and bicarbonote are precipitated when water is boiled. Permanent hardness is determined by the amount of calcium and magnesium ions present in the water.
Foam on the surface of beer or fermenting wort.
German word for "light," denoting a pale Munich syle.
Heat Exchange Recirculating Mash System. A variant of the RIMS. With this mashing method the temperature of the mash is changed by applying heat via a heat exchanger instead of the mash liquor itself. This produces greater temperature control and eliminates scorching of the mash liquor. Like the RIMS this system employs constant circulation of the mash liquor and the multiple temperature steps like acid rest, protein rest, saccharification rest and mash out, giving greater control over the mash schedule.
Sugar molecules of six carbon atoms. Glucose, fructose, lactose, mannose, galactose.
highly modified malt
Highly modified malt contains few complex proteins many free amino acids and has a large amount of soluble starch available for conversion. The presence of free amino acids in the wort aids yeast growth. The absence of complex proteins also reduces the likelihood of haze problems in the finished product.
One who brews beer for personal consumption.
The art of making beer at home. In the United States, homebrewing was legalized by President Carter on February 1, 1979, by an act of Congress introduced by Alan Cranston. The Cranston Bill allows a single person to brew up to 100 gallons of beer annually for personal enjoyment and up to 200 gallons in a household of two persons or more aged 18 and older.
Organisms that metabolize only one specific carbon source.
A perennial climbing vine, also known by the Latin botanical name of Humulus lupulus, a member of the natural family of Cannabinaceae. Only the female ripened flower is used to give beer its bitterness and characteristic aroma.
A strainer tank used in commercial brewing to filter hops and trub from boiled wort before it is chilled.
Characteristic odor of the essential hop oils. Does not include hop bitterness.
Adding hops to the boil at different intervals producing complex hop bitterness, aromas and flavors.
One of the two principal protein groups of barley. It is largely broken down into amino acids during mashing.
The rapid coagulation of proteins and resins, assisted by the hops, which occurs after a sustained period of boiling.
hot liquor tank
The vessel used to hold the hot water used for brewing steps, like sparging.
One of the most plentiful of the many oils which give hops their characteristic aroma.
The protective outer layer surrounding a seed. The barley husk is important to the mashing process because it helps form the filtering grain bed. For this reason special care should be taken during grain crushing not to shred or pulverize the husks.
Drying, puckering (like chewing on a grape skin) feeling often associated with sourness. Tannin. Most often derived from boiling grains, long mashes, oversparging or sparging with alkaline water. Also known as astringent flavor.
The reaction of the breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates into soluble fractions by either acids or enzymes in water.
A glass instrument for measuring the specific gravity of liquids as compared to that of water, consisting of a graduated stem resting on a weighted float. Most hydrometers are calibrated for use at 15.6°C (60°F) and tables or charts are provided listing corrections for variations in temperature. The accuracy of a hydrometer is tested in water at 15.6°C (60°F) where it should read 1.000.
A compound, usually alkaline, containing the OH (hydroxyl) group.